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Ludwig Gruner (1801-1882)

considerable time in Spain and engraved the works of Velazquez in the Prado, and also those of Raphael in the same Gallery. Later on he produced a fine set of plates from the celebrated cartoons of Raphael which belong to the English Crown; but being troubled for awhile with a serious affection of the eyes, was compelled to relinquish engraving and devoted himself to fresco work and decorative painting. Later on he was enabled by an operation to recover the use of his eyes and again took up engraving. He engraved many separate plates, especially after the works of Raphael and Overbeck by which he gained much reputation.

painter who studied painting in Dresden under Klinger and Führich, and engraving under Krüger. In Milan from 1826 to 1836, he studied under Longhi and Anderloni. Between 1841 and 1856, Gruner stayed in England. His connection with the Prince Consort and his decorative painting in the Queen's Garden Pavilion (formerly on the grounds of Buckingham Palace) helped to introduce continental artistic trends into England. His main activity was in the field of line engraving, done largely for the Arundel Society. He acted as artistic adviser to the Prince Consort and to Sir Charles Eastlake. In 1856 he was made director of the Cabinet of Engravings at Dresden. He spent

"One of the most impressive achievements of mid-victorian color printing" Ruari McLean states "In Ludwig's Gruner's Ornamental Art, many of the polychromatic plates are the finest yet seen in Britain, the craftsmanship to produce which must have rivaled that of the original artists, who include Giotto and Michelangelo, (and Raphael). Dedicated to Prince Albert, the expressed purpose of the work was to Ruari McLean states, "In Lewis Gruner's Specimens of provide examples of design and ornament for industry, and is clearly one of the most impressive achievements of mid-Victorian color printing. (Faber Birren Book Collection 207, McLean 120.). Ludwig Gruner was a German engraver and

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